Ongoing violence is rooted in intercommunal tensions and spurred on by rising extremism in the Sahel. Jihadists have recruited heavily among Fulani herders in recent months.
The government has previously claimed that Boko Haram was “technically defeated”. In reality the insurgency has fragmented but continues.
Al-Shabaab has lost large swathes of territory to the Somali army this year, bolstered by US and African Union peacekeeping troops, AMISOM.
For many, religion provides both an explanation for their plight notions of sin and punishment as well as solace and agency.