A city is considered ‘global’ if it has skyscrapers, cafes and malls that adhere to western notions of modernity and development. That doesn’t have to be the case
In many cities, fresh produce is often transported either by handcart or by motorcycle. Though on the surface they seem cheap, they are hugely inefficient from a technological perspective, and there’s a big cost to it
Charcoal demand remains high even in wealthier households in urban Africa. People are happy to continue cooking using charcoal – even when they can afford not to – and spend the extra money in eating meat for example
A sprawling city means that distances between neighbourhoods are long and transport costs are high. That ends up acting as a brake on the ability of cities to reap the benefits of growth.
Particulate matter concentration measures airborne particles that contribute to pollution and is measured in micrograms per cubic metre.
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