It seems political hardening is increasingly a global phenomenon. Though the local factors that drive a nativist, authoritarian, or anti-liberal mood might be unique to each country, the broader trends are apparent.
But it seems Ethiopians define ‘democracy’ more instrumentally, in terms of provision of material welfare or effective governance, rather than intrinsically — that is, protecting individual freedoms or following procedures
No court in Africa has ever overturned a presidential election result in favour of the challenger. Judgements have always favoured the incumbent candidate, the candidate sponsored by the ruling party, or the presumptive winner.
The most unexpected factor that predicts Olympic success is the participation of women in sport, which acts as a proxy indicator on the status of women in the country.
This year alone, there have been at least six instances of blocking internet or social media during elections in Africa, or politically contentious times. Algeria even did it during exam season