The lengthy nature of some of Africas wars is one of the main hindrances to ending the refugee cycle. The Somalia war is over 27 years and the DRC been in conflict since the 1990s.
EU policies, including the decision to enable the Libyan Coast Guard to intercept and return migrants, are contributing to a cycle of extreme abuse.
More than 150 women and girls were raped, beaten, and brutalised over a 10-day period at the end of November.
Remarkably, the most frequently mentioned non-threat explanation for kind of hate crime was envy of the success or ingenuity of foreigners.
It is one element of a wider problem of rampant criminality that is either ignored or encouraged by local politicians